|TR-208||I. course 2.
Introduction. Subject and division of astronomy. The outward forms of material in the
Main observation instruments.
The material organisation. The Hubble-law, basics of cosmology. The Big Boom , genesis
of galaxies. Classifying galaxies, spatial distribution.
Structure of our galaxy. Subsystems. Main features of stars. Chemical composition:
populations and their connection with subsystems. Magnitude scale, classifying by spectrum
analysis. HRD, mass-light velocity relation.
The interstellar material. Genesis, development and death of stars.
The Sun. Power generation in the core: the sunneutrino-problem. Transport of energy.
The structure of the solar atmosphere. Solar activity. Solar wind, heliosphere,
Basics of celestial mechanics, classifying planetary bodies. Genesis of the Solar system.
Asteroids, comets, meteors.
General characteristics of planetary atmosphere. Magnetosphere, ionosphere, aurora. Interaction between planets and the solar wind. Gas-giants (primary planets).
Similarity and difference between the characteristics of the 4 gas-giants. Ring
General characteristics of the rock planets. Main moments of their development
(magma-ocean, intensive bombing, internal dissolution, cooling, geochemical
difference). Surface-forming tendencies. Theorem of successive atmospheres.
Characters of Mercury, Io and Europa.
Venus. Atmosphere, surface, structure, development.
Moon. Surface, lunar stones. Internal structure. Layers of the Moon, eras of the lunar
history. Problems with the genesis.
Mars. Atmosphere, surface, structure, development.
The iceplanets (Ganymedes, Callisto, Titan, Charon, Pluto). Surface, genesis, development.
Introduction. Spherical system of co-ordinates. Basics of spherical trigonometry.
Counting co-ordinates by the help of spherical sinus and cosine theorems and matrixes.
Geographic, geodetic and geocentric co-ordinates.
The celestial globe, notable circles and points (horizon, zenith, nadir, celestial equator, ecliptic, poles, vernal equinox, galactic and supergalactic equator). Celestial system of co-ordinates. Precession, nutation.
Converting systems of co-ordinates. The dependence of co-ordinates on time, place and speed of origin (parallax, aberration, precession, proper motion, motion along an orbit. Topo-, geo- and baricentric co-ordinates.
Apparent motion of the Sun. Tropical, sidereal, anomalistic and Bessel year. Computation of time. Stellar time, mean time, atomic time, UTC.
Locating systems of co-ordinates by the method of continual approaches. The question of inertia. Fundamental system of co-ordinates, catalogue, reference stars.
Apparent motion of the moon. Lunistice, tide, eclipse. Calendar systems, Julian calendar.
Apparent motions of planets. Sidereal and sydonical year. Epicyclic motion. Counting orbits. Celestial mechanical units of measurement.
Proper motion of stars. Basics of stellarastronomy. Apex, antapex, centroid. Spatial motion of the Sun. LSR. Secular and statistical parallax.
Aberration. Daily and yearly aberration. Planetary aberration. Elliptic aberration. Daily and yearly parallax.
Interferring effects of the atmosphere: refraction, scintillation. Connection between topocentric, apparent and epochaic mean place.
Astronomical basics of determination of position.
Systems of co-ordinates on surfaces of other orbs. Heliographic and selenographic co-ordinates. Altimetry from space.
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