3.1.5 Ecology

TR-106I. course 1.semesterEcology2+0kollokvium

Synbiology, synphenobiology and ecology, the supraindividual organization. Fundamental laws: the theory of supraindividual indication, law of limitation, and the theory of ecological complementation (ecological environment and tolerance). Populations: structural characteristics, population dynamics, life history traits and demography. The r-and K-strategies, the concept of C-S-R strategies among plants. Populations and their environment, the ecological niche, intraspecific competition. Population interactions: competition, predation, parasitism, mutualism, commensalism, amensalism and neutralism. The nature of biological communities, their texture, structure and function. Succession, disturbance and the resistance of natural communities. Ecosystems: structure and function. Energy flow and material turnover in ecosystems. Food webs. The biological productivity. The most important tree and shrub species in Hungary. Natural vegetation of Hungary with special attention to forests. Bioclimatology; the most important climatological background needed for the understanding of the ecology of plants and animals. (e.g. the Walter-Gaussen type climate diagrams, the main climate zones of the Earth). Basics of soil science. Soil formation and development, physical and chemical soil properties, the main soil types of the Earth and Hungary, soil maps and their application. Vegetation zones and main cultivated plants of the World. Geographical distribution of organisms, area types, distribution maps. Island biogeography and its applicability in nature conservation. The spatial structures of vegetation, their investigation, vegetation mapping, information content of vegetation maps. Landscape ecology. Nature conservation and environmental protection. Aims, basic theories and current problems. A short introduction of the nature conservation in Hungary.

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