6th International Conference
for Orienteering Mapping

Oerlinghausen, Germany - 12-15 August 1995
In connection with the World Championship in Germany the Map Committee invite to the 6th international mapping conference. The program is planned so it is possible to take part in the Spectators Races, Saturday August 12th to Monday 14th and immediately after the conference stay for the WOC and participate in the WOC spectators competition. All registered participants in the conference will receive detailed program in the beginning of August.
The conference centre is open from Saturday (Friday on request). The conference itself starts after the competition Sunday and close Tuesday late afternoon.

Organization and information: IOF Map Committee, Andreas Dresen, Germany
Conference centre and accommodation: Bielefelder Naturfreundhaus, Pieperweg 349, D-33813 Oerlinghausen
located some 20 km from Detmold, event centre for the WOC 1995
The conference centre can be reached by train and car via Bielefeld, by flihgt via Paderborn (50 km), Hannover (120 km), Hamburg (190 km), Frankfurt (270 km).

Fees: for participants: 120 DM (including accommodation and breakfast August 12th-15th to 1 per member federation of the IOF initially).
For day visitors: 30 DM (without accommodation and breakfast).
Instructors Conference Programme

Sunday 13August 1995
16.00 Opening and introductions
16.15 GPS-Mapping (Hannu Mähönen)
Map Studio (Felix Moser)
Pro Orienteering (Esko Naukkarinen)
18.30 Dinner
20.00 Geovid Field Glass (Werner Flühmann)
OCAD (Hans Steinegger)
Colour Copying (Flemming Norgaard)
"Hands on" using Computers

Monday 14 August 1995
16.00 Educatoin and development
Instructor's Kit (Chris Shaw)
ISOM (Flemming Norgaard)
Technical Developments (Björn Persson)
News from around the orienteering world
World championship maps (Lars-Ake Larsson, Carl Henry Andersson)
19.00 Dinner outdoors at Naturfreundhaus
Social activities

Tuesday 15 August 1995
09.00 Runnability Tests
Interpretation of vegetation (Sören Nielsen)
Start with intructions in the classroom followed by tests and discussions in the forest
12.00 Lunch
13.00 Follow up of tests and vegetation interpretation
Any other questions
19.00 Clsoing remarks

Jorma AKE (Finland)
Andreas DRESEN (Germany)
Werner FLUEMANN (Switzerland)
Marc HERMANS (Belgium)
Jan HERREMANS (Belgium)
Lennart KARLSSON (Sweden)
Kirsten KNUDSEN (Denmark)
Martin LEJSEK (Czech Rep.)
Erling LUNDSGAARD (Denmark)
Hannu MAHÖNEN (Finland)
Felix MOSER (Switzerland)
Esko NAUKKARINEN (Finland)
Sören NIELSEN (Denmark)
Flemming NORGAARD (Denmark)
Björn PERSSON (Sweden)
Heidi READ (Australia)
Max READ (Australia)
John ROBINSON (New Zealand)
Dag Olav RONNING (Norway)
Christopher SHAW (UK)
Hans STEINEGGER (Switzerland)
Bryan TEAHAN (New Zealand)
Knud Erik THOMSEN (Denmark)
Lech TRZPIL (POland)

6th International Conference for Orienteering Mapping
Oerlinghausen, Germany 13th-15th August 1995

The conference took the form of a series of presentations followed by comment and discussion from the floor. There were 25 participants representing 12 countries - see appendix.

The conference was chaired by Flemming Norgaard, chairman of the IOF Map Committee Steering Group. Each participant first introduced themselves and their mapping experience - this showed there was a varied cross section of abilities present. In addition to the proceedings described below much informal discussion occurred between groups of delegates throughout the conference.

Map Studio - Felix Moser
This presentation demonstrated the add-on package Map Studio for Adobe Illustrator, this package effectively customises the popular Mac program Illustrator into an O-mapping program. Nearly all IOF symbols (line styles, point symbols and screens) have been defined and can be accessed through a series of pull down menus or a key combination. The program automatically arranges the symbols, for example when a lake is placed on top of open land, the area of open land below the lake is `cut out'. The current version Map Studio is version 1.0, it is freeware (ie. no cost) and is available to users of the Mac version Illustrator (currently version 5.5). New features planned include the editing of symbols and the creation of course overprints automatically, these will be included in version 2.0 planned for release in April 1996.

Discussion took place on the merits of Bezier curves and the differences between Illustrator and OCAD. Illustrator uses a second derivative Bezier curve (tangency and degree of curvature) while OCAD uses the first derivative Bezier curve (tangency only). Hans Steinegger illustrated how these different Bezier curves require their fixed points to be placed at different locations along the curve. Each program has its advantages and disadvantages and so it comes down to personal preference.

Geovid Field Glasses - Werner Fluhmann
This instrument is a field glass with integrated laser distance measurer and electronic compass. You view the object you wish to measure through the field glasses, a small red point is visible in the centre of your field of vision indicating the exact point you are measuring. pressing a button displays the distance, pressing the button again displays the angle.

The instrument has some advantage over GPS in that you can record the position of many features from a single location, rather than visiting each feature as you would have to using GPS. The disadvantage is that you need a known point from which to take your observations. Perhaps a combination of GPS and Geovid provides the optimum solution for High-Tech mapping!

Geovid is manufactured by Leica of Switzerland. There are two models, the one described above costing US$5000 measures distance and horizontal angle, the second known as `Vector' costing US$7000 measures distance, horizontal angle and vertical angle and also includes a computer interface. Both instruments have a range of 25-1000m, weigh approximately 1.5kg, and can measure approximately 1000 points on a set of batteries.

OCAD - Hans Steinegger
An update on developments of this widely used PC package was given. One of the new features of version 6 will be an `Extract' function allowing the user to remove groups of symbols, some other new features will be aimed at non competition maps.

Samples of OCAD output from different printers were shown. These included the 720dpi Epson Stylus colour printer and A l size maps printed using the HP DesignJet 650C. Hans praised the Epson Stylus printer for both the quality of output and the permanence of the inks on the Epson special paper. This printer is available in both A4 and A3 formats.

Hans then presented a picture of the future, with the mapper going out into the forest with GPS receiver, Geovid `Vector' field glasses and pen computer running a futuristic version of O CAD. GP S and Geovid measurements are input directly into OCAD, the mapper will then be able to concentrate on his main and most difficult task, interpretation and generalisation of the terrain.

GPS Mapping - Hannu Mähönen
An interesting talk was given by a member of Koraldhus, the 'High-Tech Orienteering Club' on the current state of GPS, especially in relation to using differential GPS under tree canopy for O map making. Several different receivers had been tested with varying results on the quantity and quality of recorded data. The receiver finally selected for O-mapping was a Trimble Pro XL (US$14000) which gave good consistent results. The level of accuracy available meant there was never a need to re-measure a position.

Competitor Tracking using GPS - Hannu Mähönen
A simulation of real-time GPS tracking of an orienteer in competition was demonstrated. The orienteers was equipped with a head mounted GPS antennae together with GPS receiver and radio transmitter on a back pack, the total weight of these being less than what most night orienteers carry with a lamp and battery pack. The orienteers position was fixed by GPS and transmitted by radio every two seconds to base, the position in the forest was displayed on a bit-map image of the orienteering map. In the simulation the orienteers progress was speeded up. Apart from showing the route of the orienteer and highlighting any mistakes made it also showed some inaccuracies with the map (the orienteer running parallel to a path rather than along it), the map having been surveyed without the help of GPS!

Trenches - Esko Naukkarinen
There was some discussion on how to map military trenches in the terrain. Current practice varies but is usually brown, either 109 erosion gully, 110 small erosion gully or a pair of 106 steep slope symbols. It was suggested that as trenches are man made they should be black, a 0.13 line being proposed, this was not universally accepted, another suggestion was to use a solid blue line. The conference did not come up with a definitive solution.

Instructor's Kit for O-Mapping - Christopher Shaw
This kit provides useful material for map instructors. The current edition is now out of date and is being revised to including new methodologies. The previous edition was expensive to produce, it consisted of instructors notes, overhead projector slides, 35mm slides and some samples. The format of the new edition is not finalised, but a high-tech solution such as distribution on CD is being considered.

ISOM - Flemming Norgaard
The current drawing specifications were well accepted in general and there is no need to make radical changes. However the current specification was written when pen and ink or scribing was the norm. The line widths I screens in the specification reflect this but today most maps are being drawn using computers. Output produced by computers is very accurate, there is no fattening of lines through the various production stages as there used to be. In the short term there may be a need to adjust some of these line I symbol I screen dimensions. The use of computers makes a much wider range of screen patterns available, these should be investigated to see whether improvements can be made.

Technical Developments - Bjbrn Persson
There is a need to be aware of technical developments in all areas of mapping. Cartographic methods have changed out of all recognition over the last five years, other areas including field survey and the use colour copying may also see rapid change. There is a need for the committee to be aware of these developments and for a forum to be set up to receive feedback on their usefulness and cost effectiveness and to be able to disseminate this information among other mappers.

Runnability Tests - Sören Nielsen
The Danish Orienteering Federation have included a runnabilty graph in their latest translation of ISOM enabling the mapper to assess the correct grading of vegetation by running a known distance through the vegetation and timing it. The delegates changed into O gear and split into two groups ready to carry out their own investigation into runnability. Four different flattish blocks of vegetation were selected, each delegate assessed the runnabilty of each block and then timed themselves running a known distance through it. A control run was also timed in runnable open forest. The two groups ran through the four blocks and the control in opposite order so as to reduce any possible errors due to tiredness.

Back inside, each delegate calculated their speed in runnable open forest from the control and plotted their own timings for each block on the graph. It was found that there was good correlation between delegates for each block. To the surprise of many delegates, they had graded the vegetation slower than it actually was, many having agreed with the mapper's interpretation. Areas which were mapped as 408 middle green were found to be 406 light green and areas mapped as 406 light green should have been 405 white. In one instance, an area mapped as 408 middle green was found to border 406 light green / 405 white, in that instance the vegetation should err on the slow side and be mapped as 406 light green.

In general mappers depict vegetation as being slower than it actually is.

Survey Assessment
In between the runnabilty tests the groups carried out a critique of the map. The area consisting of a steep northern ridge with a series of hills parallel and to the south of the ridge, with some flattish valley bottoms in between. The position of features appeared to be very accurate but the main criticism of the map was that too much small detail had been included. There were too many clearings which you could not really make out while walking let alone running. From our runnability tests we concluded that the vegetation was mapped slower than was necessary.

For further information on any of the above contact the presenter as listed in the delegate list or:
Map Studio - Adrian Moser, Reithaldenstrasse 23, CH-8266 Steckborn, Switzerland
Real-time GPS - See IOF High-Tech Group newsletter no. 9 - February 1995
Geovid - See IOF High-Tech Group newsletter no. 10 - August 1995