Maps of Europe

Organized by Dr. Katalin Plihál


The people of antiquity and the Middle Ages thought that the world consisted of three parts. This view was reflected by the image of the Wise Men from the East, who journeyed to the manger of Jesus. The Gospel of Matthew describes them as magi or astrologists, but the popular belief soon identified them as kings (Gaspar, Melchior and Balthasar), who represented the three continents that the people of the time knew: Europe, Asia and Africa.
Europe became an individual subject of cartographic representation as a part of the known world only when the New World, America was discovered. The term Europe was not really in use up to early 16th century. In those times, our continent was mostly referred to as the Christian world. From the end of the 17th century, Europe left its geographical limits and started an adventurous trip among the world civilisations. This journey led to a new attitude towards the world, which was also represented in the decoration of maps: Europe is a queen, sitting on a throne, to whom the people of all other continents pay homage. The present exhibition shows some excellent examples of such representations to the visitors.
A great Hungarian sculptor, Pál Pátzay (1896-1970) said: Each political unit in Europe has its own cultural identity. Maybe, it is the intellectual ambition of all these peoples that has created such an enlivening tension that is fertile and is fertilising the culture. This explains the intellectual richness and the continuous rebirth of its culture. Thomas Stearns Eliot (1888-1965), the great 20th century English poet spoke about the importance of the Christian religion in the development of the cultural unity of Europe in a radio interview in 1945: "[…] I am talking about the common tradition of Christianity which has made Europe what it is, and about the common cultural elements which this common Christianity has brought with it… It is in Christianity that our arts have developed; it is in Christianity that the laws of Europe - until recently - have been rooted. It is against a background of Christianity that all our thought has significance. An individual European may not believe that the Christian Faith is true; and yet what he says, and makes, and does, will all depend on [the Christian heritage] for its meaning. Only a Christian culture could have produced a Voltaire or a Nietzsche. I do not believe that the culture of Europe could survive the complete disappearance of the Christian Faith. […]"
The idea of the European unity was put into words probably most expressively by John Donne (1573-1631), the leading thinker of the English metaphysical school, the dean of the St. Paul's Cathedral in London. His eternal thoughts warn and encourage all of us:

No man is an island,
Entire of itself.
Each is a piece of the continent,
A part of the main.
If a clod be washed away by the sea,
Europe is the less.
As well as if a promontory were.
As well as if a manner of thine own
Or of thine friend's were.
Each man's death diminishes me,
For I am involved in mankind.
Therefore, send not to know
For whom the bell tolls,
It tolls for thee.

If we agree that the map is a special snapshot of the represented area, this exhibition is a colourful wide screen picture, which guides the visitors through the history of Europe. Probably, you will not realise that your one or two hours visit here has embraced nearly five hundred years.

1. Waldseemüller, Martin: Carta itineraria Europae … [Facsimile map]
Strasbourg, 1520
To our present knowledge, Martin Waldseemüller (1470-1521), a geographer of Strassburg was the first to publish an independent map of Europe in 1511. Unfortunately not a single copy survives. In 1520 he published another one the only copy of which can be found at the Provincial Museum of Tyrol (Ferdinandeum) at Innsbruck. The beautiful but due to its southern orientation slighly unusual map is framed by arms of European states, provinces, and towns. The map is dedicated to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V a full portrait of whom is to be seen in the left upper corner together with the imperial flag with the eagle. Opposite is his younger brother, the later Ferdinand I. Incidentally, Martin Waldseemüller is the godfather of the continent spoken of until then as the New World. He gave the following explanation for giving it the name America: earlier 'worlds' (i.e., continents) received their names after women, so it was high time to give a continent a masculine name, that of the Florentine discoverer and sailor Amerigo Vespucci. Few people know, however, that Vespucci's parents gave their son the name Amerigo (Emericus) after St. Imre, crown prince of the Hungarian Árpád dynasty.

2. Forlani, Paolo: La carta del naugare … dell' Europe. Velence, 1569
Paolo Forlani, the Veronese engraver and publisher of maps copied nautical maps between 1562 and 1569. The navigation map of Europe shown here belongs to the series made by him. The coasts drawn on the basis of data received from sailors are remarkably exact. As the interior of the mainland was unimportant for the purposes of navigation, it was usually left blank or filled out with fanciful decoration. This type of maps is called portolan, which is a combination of two words, porto meaning harbour or port and lana meaning leather. Early navigation maps were namely drawn on leather to make them more resistant to the rigours of weather than paper.

3. Surveying Instrumental with Sundial

4. Universal Astrolabe (De la Hire-type)

5. Butterfiled-Bion-type Sundial

6. Schiessler's Compasses with Sundial

7. Ortelius, Abraham: Europae 1570. In: Ortelius, A.: Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antwerpen, 1573
The map here was published in Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, a famous atlas by the outstanding cartographer and publisher Abraham Ortelius (1527-98) of Antwerp in 1570. On early maps frontiers were usually marked with different colours but due to the lack of reliable information they were naturally far from being correct. Users could still form an idea about current political conditions.

8. This portrait of Abraham Ortelius was made by his contemporary and compatriot Philip Galle (1537-1612), engraver and publisher in Haarlem. Ortelius's atlas was reprinted several times and was translated into several European language.

9. Pedometer

10. Münster, Sebastian: Europa … In: Cosmographey, das ist Beschreibung aller Länder. Basel, 1598
The genre of cosmographies set forth by Münster was later enriched not only by the maps of newly discovered territories and the pictures of the strange animals and plants found there but also by Professor Bünting's new presentation of Europe (1588). It temporarily pushed to the background the figure of Europa inherited from antique mythology.

11. This richly decorated Renaissance medallion by an unknown artist portrays sixty-year-old Sebastian Münster surrounded by putti.

12. Ivory Diptych Dial

13. Regiomontanus Table

14. Mercator, Gerard: Europa ... 1595. In: Mercator, G. -Hondius, J.: Atlas sive cosmographicae meditationes de fabrica mundi et fabricati figura. Ed. 2. Amsterdam, 1607
The famous atlas of the renowned geographer, cartographer, and mathematician Gerard Mercator (1512-1594) entitled Atlas sive cosmographicae meditationes de fabrica mundi et fabricati figura was published after his death by his son, Rumold (ca. 1545-1599). Earlier it was published only in parts (per chapters). The map here was compiled and drawn by Rumold Mercator on the basis of his father's wall map of Europe made in 1554 and revised in 1571. This is the first among the maps of the continent presented here where the frontiers between countries and provinces are indicated.

15. This imposing portrait of the sixty-two-year-old Gerard Mercator was made by a contemporary, the Flemish artist engraver Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590).

16. Hondius, Jodocus: Nova Europae descriptio. In: Mercator, G. -Hondius, J.: Atlas sive cosmographicae meditationes de fabrica mundi et fabricati figura. Ed. 2. Amsterdam, 1607
Jodocus Hondius (1563-1612), geographer, engraver, and publisher in Amsterdam, acquired the right to publish the atlases of the Mercators through family links in 1604. His version included his own wall map of Europe of 1595 but retained Rumold Mercator's map, too. On this map of Hondius one can find islands included by Mercator as well but non-existant in reality (like, for example, Frisland imagined to be in the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean and 'seen' there by renowned sailors of the day) and the island of Novaya Zemlya newly discovered during the search for the Northeast Passage.

17. Double portrait of Gerard Mercator and Jodocus Hondius with the map of Europe above them.

18. Universal Equatorial Solar Ring

19. Horizontal Pocket Sundial

20. Blaeu, Willem Janszoon: Europa recens descripta. 1635. In: Blaeu, W. J. -Blaeu, J.: Novus atlas, das ist Weltbeschreibung ... Amsterdam, 1649
Willem Janszoon (1571-1638), a cartographer, mechanic, publisher and bookseller in Amsterdam, a student of Tycho Brahe, founded a printing and publishing house that later made the family's name famous. Several rare publications relating to Hungary were published there and the famous Hungarian printer and letter-cutter Miklós Tótfalusi Kis (1650-1702) worked there as a journeyman, also. Willem Janszoon Blaeu's map of Europe was first published in 1617 and belonged to the most beautiful and most demanding maps of the day. It was, therefore, included in all Blaeu atlases in the future, too, and was often copied by the contemporaries. The page here is framed by pictures of European cities and national costumes.

21. Hondius, Henricus: Europa exactissime descripta. 1631. In: Janssonius, J.: Atlas contractus, sive atlantis majoris compendium ... Amsterdam, 1666
This map dedicated to the French King Louis XIII was made and published by Henricus Hondius (1597-1651) in 1631. Since France supported at that time those fighting for the independence of the Low Countries, the territory that was to become future Holland, the map shows a Spanish-Dutch naval battle, also. What is more, Hondius recorded a less widely known fact, too, namely the construction of a defence line on orders by Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich to ward off attacks by the Tartars of the Crimea. The inscription reads, "Saisec constans nemoribus desectis et vallis, a Tzar Fjedor Iuanowitz aggestum contra irruptiones Tartarorum Crimensium" (Saisec [i.e., the defence line] consists of timber and earthwork and was built by Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich against the invasion of the Tartars of the Crimea).

22. Zubler's Compasses with Sundial

23. Commemorative Medal of the Vasvár Peace Treaty, 1664

24. Duval, Pierre: L'Europe 1670. In: Duval, P.: Cartes de geographiae ... Paris, 1672
The map by the French geographer Pierre Duval (1618-83) shows frontiers valid at the time of its publication (1670). For example, the presentation of Hungary records the exact borderline of the territories occupied by the Turks, proving how up-to-date the map was.

25. Brandegger's Sextans

26. Rossi, Giovanni Giacomo: L'Europa. In: Rossi, G. G.: Mercurio geografico overo guida geografica in tutte le parti del mondo ... Roma, ca 1690
The Roman publisher Giacomo Giovanni Rossi (163?-1700?) published in the second half of the 17th century several of his maps widely known later on. His atlas Mercurio Geografico, the title page of which shows allegorical figures against an Italian landscape, included this map of Europe made in 1677.

27. Simple Nocturnal

28. Commemorative Medal of the Battle of Buda, 1686

29. Wit, Frederick de: Nova et accurata totius Europae descriptio. In: Wit, Fr. de: Atlas. Amsterdam, 1690
Frontiers on the map of the Amsterdam cartographer and publisher Frederick de Wit (1630-1706) must have been only partly valid at the presumed date of the map's publication. He must have relied on sources available at that time, such as newspapers, newsletter, and brochures. Spheres of influence were indicated rather than existing frontiers. One could form an idea about the retreat of the Ottoman Empire from the formerly conquered territories and about the successful campaigns of the Holy League called into being by the Habsburg emperor, Pope Innocent XI, Venice, and Poland in 1684 and joined also by Russia in 1686. The League managed to recover from the Turks the Hungarian territories of the Habsburg Empire and the Podolian territories of Poland before the Treaty of Karlowitz (1699).

30. Commemorative Medal of the Battle of Morea, 1685

31. Commemorative Medal of the Karlóca (Karlowitz), 1699

32. Dollond's Telescope.

33. Sanson, Guillaume: L'Europe ... In: Jaillot, Hubert: Atlas nouveau, contenant toutes les parties du Monde ...Paris, 1692
This map of Guillaume Sanson (1633-1703), geographer of the French court, working in Paris, was published in 1681 in the atlas of sculptor, engraver, publisher, and geographer Alexis-Hubert Jaillot (1632-1712) working similarly in Paris. The author dedicated this page to the dauphin, the heir to the French throne. The latter's coat-of-arms is flanked by Mars and Minerva surrounded by military equipments and symbols of peaceful arts and sciences. The gallopping horse in the Baroque cartouche is flanked by two cornucopiae.

34. Galilei's Compasses

35. Zürner, Adam Friedrich: Europae in tabula geographica delineatio ... Amsterdam, 1705
The geographer and publisher of maps Adam Friedrich Zürner (1680-1742) was member of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences. On his map of Europe he carefully enlisted the new results of astronomy on the basis of which the map had been made. His thoroughly executed work was later used as a source by several others, such as, for example, Johann Baptist Homann and Matthäus Seutter.
The beautiful cartouche of the map displays the usual representation of Europa. Above her head Mercury (wearing winged sandals and a helmet) holds a flag with the inscription of the map, whereas Minerva holds her shield with Gorgon and a lance, surrounded by putti.

36. Universal Equinoctial Sundial

37. Weigel, Christoph: Europa vetus. In: Weigel, Christoph: Descriptio orbis antiqui ... Nürnberg, 1720
In cooperation with Christoph Weigel (1645-1725), goldsmith, engraver, and publisher of maps in Nuremberg, Professor Johann David Köhler embarked on a profitable venture. They were among the first to make and publish a historical atlas for schools of all levels, as it has been mentioned above. This map shows Europe during the days of the Roman Empire for pupils in upper forms. The inscription takes the form of a Roman vexillum from which medals are hanging with emblematic figures and toponyms written in their classical form and in classical letters.

38. Mariner's Sextant

39-40. Commemorative Medals of Pozserovac Peace Treaty, 1718

41. Homann, Johann Baptist: Europa christiani orbis domina ... 1706. In: Homann, J. B.: Atlas novus terrarum orbis imperia, regna et status... geographice demonstrans ... Nürnberg, 1707
Johann Baptist Homann (1663-1724) was an excellent engraver and mapseller in Nuremberg, geographer of the Holy Roman Emperor, and member of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences. This map is an outstanding piece among his early maps, for which he made use of the result of the Nuremberg astronomer Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (1677-1750) and which displayed the transit of the elipse of May 12, 1706 across Europe. The textsheet is held by putti. The chalice representing redemption, the Holy Sacrament, the Holy Cross, the papal tiara and pontificial crosiers are held above God's Eye shining like the rising sun, symbolizing the apotheosis of Christian faith. Emperor Charles VI is shown here as a Roman emperor with a laurel wreath with the imperial eagle at his feet.

42. Johann Baptist Homann's portrait was engraved by Johann Wilhelm Winter (1696-1765), living similarly in Nuremberg, after a painting by Joannes Kenckel (1688-1722).

43. Simple Sextant

44. Inclining Sundial with Horizontal Plate

45. Seutter, Matthäus: Europa religionis christianae ... cultu omnium terrarum orbis partium praestantissima ... Nürnberg, 1729
The map shown here is one of the early ones of Georg Matthäus Seutter (1687-1757) working first in Vienna, then in Augsburg as it is indicated by the fact that he signed it only as a copperplate engraver. The map entitled 'Europe, first in promoting the Christian faith, morals, and the art of peace and war in the world' has a beautiful cartouche and displays conditions prior to the Peace Treaty of Nystädt between Russia and Sweden (1721) closing the northern war of 1700-21. Europa is represented as an empress with the imperial eagle at her knee. Under the text Minerva and Apollon are sprawling.

46. Simple Wood Box Sundial

47. Europa secundum legitimas projectionis stereographieae regulas ... descripta ... 1743. Nürnberg, Homännische Erben, 1747
Johann Baptist Homann's heirs and successors continued the profitable publication of maps at the well-established publishing house after the founder's death. The firm adopted the name Homännische Erben, i.e., Homännis'Heirs. It was for them that Johann Matthias Hase (1684-1742), professor of mathematics at the University of Wittemberg made this new map published in 1743.

48. Polen Satirical Medal, 1742

49. Commemorative Medal of the Battle of Kolin, 1757

50. Sight-vane

51. Equinoctial Sundial

52. Görög Demeter-Kerekes Sámuel: Europának közönséges táblája …Wien, 1790
The Hungarian Demeter Görög (1760-1833) and Sámuel Kerekes (mid-18th c.-1800) published this map of Europe dedicated to Count Koháry Ferenc, Lord Lieutenant of Nagy-Hont County, in Vienna. Beside the island of Vardö one can find the inscription "Itt volt Hell 1769" (Here was Hell in 1769). The Hungarian astronomer Miksa Hell (1720-92) and János Sajnovics (1733-85), the first linguist dealing with the relationship of the Hungarian and the Ugrian languages and with Hungarian comparative linguistics, went to the Norwegian Valdö on behalf of Christian VII, King of Denmark, to observe the transit of satellite Venus across the Sun in June, 1769. Hell was the first among all the astronomers of the world to calculate the exact distance between the Earth and the Sun on the basis of the measurements taken at that occasion. His results were at first questioned by some colleagues but were later verified by other measurements.

53. L'Isle, Guillaume de-Dezauche, Jean-André: Carte d'Europe ... 1782. In: Atlas géographique des quatre parties du monde… Paris, 1789
Philippe Buache (1700-73), famous French cartographer and hydrographer, member of the Royal French Academy of Sciences was among the first to draw navigation maps that indicated depth with level lines. This map of Europe was made by him in 1782. He carefully called attention to the fact that space made it impossible to show the Asian part of Russia. It deserves credit that he displayed a number of Hungarian placenames difficult to spell for foreigners.

54. Hunter

55. Commemorative Medal of the Küçük-Kaynardji Peace Treaty, 1774

56. Commemorative Medal of the Teschen Peace Treaty, 1779

57. Universal Cogwheel Sundial

58. Sight rule

59. Equatorial Pocket Sundial.

60. Europa secundum legitimas projectionis stereographicae regulas ... descripta ... 1785. In: Atlas geographicus maior ... Nürnberg, Homännische Erben, 1785
This beautiful map is the partly revised version Johann Matthias Hase's map of Europe, published by Homann's Heirs. The detailed and high-standard publication is worthy of the publishers and illustrates the continent's religious diversity. The right to publish it was granted by Emperor Joseph II, famous for his enlightened absolutism and religious tolerance.

61. Bowles, Carrington-Schrämbl, Franz Anton: Übersicht der Europaeischen Seeküsten. Wien, 1791
The London printer and publisher Carington Bowles (1724-93) issued his navigation map of Europe in the late 18th century. Later it was taken over by Franz Anton Schrämbl for his large atlas. The coasts of Asia Minor, i.e., the eastern part of the Mediterranean, were shown on an inserted smaller map.

62. Crome, August Friedrich Wilhelm: Neue Karte von Europa ... Wien, 1787
August Friederick Wilhelm Crome (1753-1833) was the first to make in 1782 a map of Europe displaying its natural and economic resources. It became so popular that it was included in Franz Anton Schrämbl's (1751-1803) Allgemeiner grosser Atlass published in Vienna between 1786 and 1800. On the margins one finds information about the major natural and economic treasures. In connection with Hungary it is established that the land is rich in grain crops, wine, fruits, saffron, honey, timber, horses, silver, copper, mercury, salt, fish, sheep, and mineral springs.

63. Reilly, Franz Johann Josef von: Karte von Europa ... 1795. In: Grosser deutscher Atlas. Wien, Fr. J. J. von Reilly, 1796
As the inscription in the cartouche indicates, this new map by Franz Johann Joseph von Reilly was made in 1795 on the basis of the latest sources. It was later inserted into the volume Deutscher Atlas (Vienna, 1796). There were hardly any peaceful years in Europe in the last two decades of the 18th century. Although these wars were mostly local, they upset the earlier balance of power on the continent and readjusted borders.

64. Commemorative Medal of the Compo Formio Peace Treaty, 1797

65. Budai Ésaiás-Erőss Gábor: Európa. In: Oskolai új átlás az alsó classisok számára ... Debrecen, 1800
Ézsaiás Budai (1766-1841) was a historian and a famous professor at the Calvinist College of Debrecen, Hungary. Under his direction, skilful students prepared and published in 1800 the first school atlas in Hungarian for pupils of lower grades that remained in use for a long time. The costs were covered by the College and the atlas was printed at its printing press.

66. Budai Ésaiás-Pethes Dávid: Európa. In: Oskolai új átlás ... Debrecen, 1804
Students of the Calvinist College who developed skills in copperplate engraving soon made the first similar atlas in Hungarian for the higher grades as well (today's secondary school level). Some of them later actually worked as engravers. Their atlases proved very useful in many other Calvinist schools as well for a long time to come. The copy shown here once belonged to Vasvári Pál, one of the leaders of the Hungarian revolution and war of independence in 1848-49, who died a glorius death leading his volunteers' corps. The signatures of later owners testify that the atlas was used by several subsequent generations.

67. Ézsaiás Budai's portrait was engraved by E. Mayer in Nürnberg.

68. Precision Horizontal Table Sundial

69. Az Oroszországgal kötött szövetség emlékérme. (1799)

70. Commemorative Medal of the Pozsony Peace Treaty, 1805

71. Mollo, Tranquillo: Europa samt den Reisen des Capitain Cook.
Wien, 1805
With his map of Europe published early in the 19th century the Viennese engraver, publisher and bookseller Tranquilo Mollo (17??-18??) satisfied the curiosity of a wider public in connection with the political changes on the continent. The third partition of Poland took place in 1795.

72. Greipel Edvárd: Európa ... 1817-ben In: Nemzeti Magyar Átlás. Pest, 1817-1819
Eduárd Greipel, senior seargent in the imperial and royal army, inserted on December 15, 1817 in the papers a subscription offer for a Magyar Nemzeti Átlás (National Hungarian Atlas). Supported by Palatine Joseph and financed by the Hungarian public the atlas could be published, including a political map of Europe in Hungarian to be used extensively by the generation of the Age of Reform. The margins contain detailed explanations about the individual parts of the major mountain ranges.

73. Folding Pocket Sundials

74. Commemorative Medal of the Waterloo Peace Treaty, 1815

75. Pantograph

76. Europa nach den letzten Friedensschlüssen. In: Dirwaldt, Joseph: Allgemeiner Hand-Atlas ... Wien,1818
This map was published in Berlin in 1819 and reflected a very curious hydrographic situation in Hungary. A river or artifical canal connected the Danube and the Tisza Rivers starting out from the former below Pest. There were plans for the regulation of waterways that actually envisaged such a solution but the cartographer here was much ahead of the hydraulic engineers. In fact, this connection between the two rivers was never realized. The other interesting feature of the map was that it presented Galicia as part of Hungary, whereas it was an independent province of the Austrian Empire governed directly by Vienna.

77. Schmidt, Johann Marias Friedrich: Europa. Berlin, 1819
In May, 1814 the French King Louis XVIII and the countries allied against Napoleon I concluded a peace treaty in Paris. France lost the territories it conquered after January 1, 1792. In November, the same year a congress of the leading European states met in Vienna to discuss the territorial rearrangement of Europe necessary at the close of the Napoleonic wars. France could keep the territories it had held before 1792 and became isolated from the other great powers by several small buffer states. Belgium was annexed to Holland, the Kingdom of Lombardy and Venice to Austria, Norway to Sweden, and Finland to Russia. The Holy Roman Empire and the Confederation of the Rhine was replaced by a German Confederation. The Grand Duchy of Warsaw was redivided. The Sardian Kingdom became the only independent state of Italy as the northern parts of the latter came to be ruled once again by the Habsburgs and the southern ones by the Bourbons. On September 26, the same year eastern Orthodox Russia, Catholic Austria, and Protestant Prussia signed the charter of the Holy Alliance brought about to preserve the new political order. The Alliance was later joined by all states of Europe with the exception of the Vatican, England, and the Turkish Empire.

78. Commemorative Medal of the Tilsit Peace Treaty, 1807

79-80. Commemorative Medals of the Paris Peace Treaty, 1814

81. Horizontal Table Sundial

82. Dóczy József: Európa földképe. Pest, 1830
This is a map by the Hungarian József Dóczy (1779-1856), mass-priest of the Cistercian Order, published as an appendix to the volume Európa tekintete jelenvaló természeti, míveleti és kormányi állapotjában (Europe: Current natural, cultural, and political conditions). Dóczy was the first to write a book in Hungarian about the geography of the individual states of the continent. In Volume XII Dóczy includes a Hungarian glossary of geographical terms.

83. Stieler, Adolf: Europa ... 1829. In: Stieler, Adolf: Hand-Atlas über alle Theile der Erde ... Gotha, 1831
Following the instructions of Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), Heinrich Carl Wilhelm Berghaus (1797-1884) dedicated himself to the scientific exploration of the world and made a map about mean temperatures in Europe. He updated and reconstructed his maps from time to time. The first Institute of Climatology was founded by the Elector of Pfalz at Mannheim in 1780. At that time fourteen German and sixteen foreign universities undertook to record temperatures, the amount of precipitation, barometrical changes, and the direction of the wind three times a day. Berghaus relied on these data when making his maps.

84. Octant.

85. Ritter's Solar Quadrant

86. Octant.

87. Karacs Ferenc: Európa földképe ... In: Karacs F.: Európa magyar atlása ... Pest, 1838
Ferenc Karacs (1770-1838), engraver, publisher and Hungarian patriot in Pest, published this beautifully engraved and easily readable map of Europe in Hungarian in 1838, the year of the great flood in Pest. It was meant for a wide circle of users, i.e., "for the benefit of army officers, readers of newspapers, merchants, travellers, and students." The map was dedicated "to the Estates of Bihar County", presumably its sponsors.

88. Politische Karte von Europa. Wien, Franz Werner, 1848
The Viennese Franz Werner (18??-18??)) evoked the revolutions of 1848 on his lively map. Armies are marching, attacking the enemy, and defending themselves; civilians are walking waving flags and weapons and nearly every corner of the continent is in a state of ferment. In this revolutionary atmosphere there are also peaceful scenes accompanied by inscriptions carrying political, geographic, and ethnographic information. The centre of the map is occupied by a sunlit "free" Germany ready to unite in Frankfurt am Main and its hoped-for leader, Archduke John of Habsburg. Only a few places are free from the general turmoil: the Finns are fishing, the Lapps travel by a sleigh drawn by reindeer, and the Norwegians are waiting for a ship approaching the harbour. However, the Russians have just hanged a patriot on a "tree of freedom", the Cossacks suffer from an epidemic of cholera, a troika is taking exiles to Siberia, and Khan Abdul Mashid is trying to forget about the instability of his throne in the arms of his odalisks. Besides the revolutionary events the map displays the usual array of folk costumes and other ethnographic elements.

89. Heliocronometer

90. Berghaus, Heinrich Carl Wilhelm: Karte von Eüropa zur Übersicht der Wärme-Verbreitung in diesem Erdtheile. 1849. In: Berghaus, H. C. W.: Physikalischer Atlas ... Gotha, 1852
Following the instructions of Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), Heinrich Carl Wilhelm Berghaus (1797-1884) dedicated himself to the scientific exploration of the world and made a map about mean temperatures in Europe. He updated and reconstructed his maps from time to time. The first Institute of Climatology was founded by the Elector of Pfalz at Mannheim in 1780. At that time fourteen German and sixteen foreign universities undertook to record temperatures, the amount of precipitation, barometrical changes, and the direction of the wind three times a day. Berghaus relied on these data when making his maps.

91. Berghaus, Heinrich Carl Wilhelm: J. Schouw's Übersicht der Verbreitung der wichtigsten Kultur-, Baum- und Strauchgewächse in Eüropa ... 1851.
In: Berghaus, H. C. W.: Physikalischer Atlas ... Gotha, 1852
On this map of cultivation Berghaus represented the habitats of some important cultivated plants, such as orange, olive, maize, and grapes among others and their furthest extension to the north and to the south.

92. Desjardins, Constant: Carte de l'Europe commerciale & industrielle. Industrielle-commercielle Karte von Europa. Wien, 1859
Constant Desjardins (18??-18??) compiled his bilingual (French and German) map of industry and commerce in Europe in 1859. It presented the major lines of communication, the network of canals, railway and steamship lines, lighthouses and commercial flags. Places famous for their industrial enterprises or for commerce were indicated separately.

93. Commemorative Medal of the Balaklava Peace Treaty, 1854

94. A török-angol-francia szövetség emlékérme. (1854)

95. Horizontal Table Sundial

96. Leeder, Ehrenfried-Schade, Theodor: Europa. In: Illustrierter Handatlas zur Länder- und Völkerkunde. Leipzig, 1866
This richly illustrated map for schoolchildren (Leipzig, 1866) was sure to quicken the pupils' imagination. It helped them learn about the basic natural and political conditions and the pictures on the margins illustrated for them episodes of urban and country life, the major sorts of domestic and non-domesticated animals, folk costumes, grain crops, and forest types. Architectural styles were represented by the Gothic cathedral of Burgos and the Byzantine St.Mark Church of Venice.

97. Hamm, Wilhelm: Weinkarte von Europa. Jena, 1872
The map of viticulture made by Wilhelm Hamm (18??-18??) already reflects the territorial changes of 1871. Its second edition, too, must have been published before 1873. The map was originally meant for wine-merchants, hotels, and connoisseurs. Social life demanded the expert knowledge of wines in those days. The map presents the famous wine-districts of Europe and provides information about the important sites, varieties of grape, the quality of wines from the major vintages, and the major warehouses.

98. Table Sundila and Moondial

99. Simple Sextant

100. Chronoscope or Chronodeck

101. Cartographical bevel-rule.

102. Compass

103. Geological Compass

104. Tool of Rectangular Co-ordinates

105. Transit Instrument

106. Transit telescope

The 3rd Room

107. Rose, Frederick W.: John Bull and his friends. A serio-comic map of Europe. London, 1900
On another half serious and half comic map Rose dedicated the year 1900 to John Bull and his friends. The former has been attacked by two wild cats (Transvaal and Orange Free State). He could, however, accumulate ammunition in the form of colonies (Canada, Australia, and India among others). France arranges the world exhibition of 1900 and at the same time mourns for her torn dolls (Siam, New Foundland, Madagascar, Egypt, and Marocco) on her lap, asking for Germany's help. Germany is preoccupied with some new ships and is about to break out and conquer further territories. Austro-Hungary is holding out the prospect of serious threats. Switzerland is calmly reading a newspaper and is happy about the good functioning of the Red Cross. Despite the efforts of the Tsar to conclude peace, Russia is represented as an octopus reaching out far with its long arms and threatening China, Afghanistan, Poland, Finland, and Persia.

108. Military Compass

109. Aranyozó készlet könyvkötők számára.

110. A greenwiech-i meridián 100 éves elfogadásának emlékérme. (1984)

111-112. Brózik Károly: Európa politikai térképe. In: Berecz Antal-Brózik Károly-Erődi Béla: Nagy magyar atlasz. Budapest, 1906
"Every cultured nation that is an independent entity in international communication, trade, and politics has a large atlas that offers exact information to the members of that nation about every issue that should direct their interest towards distant foreign countries and continents," wrote the publisher (the Hungarian Geographical Society) and the editor Károly Brózik (1849-1911) in the preface of Nagy Magyar Atlasz (Large Hungarian Atlas). Some of its maps were taken over from other sources and some were newly compiled for this edition. The map presenting the political conditions of Europe was reworked by Brózik in a competent way, whereas the high-standard execution does credit to engraver I. Schubert.

113. Andree, Richard: Europa politisch. In: Richard Andree's Allgemeiner Handatlas. Bielefeld-Leipzig, 1881
This ethnic map of 1881 was made by the German geographer and cartographer Richard Andrée (1835-1912), whose Allgemeiner Handatlas was very popular for decades and was reprinted several times. It is specially interesting for its side-maps presenting the ethnically and linguistically mixed territories, i.e., the focal points of national and linguistic controversies, such as the Basque territories, the Bretagne Peninsula, Southern Tyrol, and the Flemish and Walloon territories.

114. Bartholomew, John: Europe & Near East - general commercial chart. In: Atlas of the world's commerce ... London, 1907
The Geographical Institute of Edinburgh was the first to make a commercial map of the world under the title Atlas of the World's Commerce. It was published by John George Bartholomew (1860-1920). The map illustrates the advantage in world trade enjoyed by maritime countries in the first half of the 20th century. Their cruisers could carry more goods than any means of overland transport. The completion of the Suez Canal on August 15, 1869 gave a great impetus to commercial relations with Asia. The free use of this artificial waterway was guaranteed by an international treaty concluded in Constantinople. Under Article I the Canal is open for every commercial and warship regardless of its nationality both in times of peace and war. The canal cannot be blockaded at any time. Hungary enacted the treaty as Act XX of 1889. However, the treaty lost its force during both world wars.

115. Varga Imre: A háborús Európa térkép-karikaturája. Budapest, 1914,
This caricature of the war map of Europe, drawn by graphic artist Imre Varga hes the motto British arrogance knows no bounds. The German wonder weapon, the 42 cm howitzer, is used as a scale. Germany is poking the butts of France with a bayonette; Churchill is smoking his cigar with his hands in his pockets despite the German guns pointed at Britain; Switzerland is crouching in the form of a hedgehog; and Italy is sleeping sweet on her pillows. The German dragon is trying to swallow the right hand of Russia holding a bottle of vodka, while the Turks do their best to put his left leg in chains. In the meantime the peoples of Russia are trying to get out of the boxes symbolizing their isolation.

116. Képeslapok az első világháború idejéből.

117. German Satirical Medal, World War I

118. Emanuel, Walter: Hark! Hark! The dogs do bark! Serio-comique map of Europe at war. London, 1914
The satirical map made from the point of view of the Entente shows the dogs of war let loose in Europe. The whole thing was started by a dachshund gone wild accompanied by an Austrian mongrel attacking a little Serb. It added fuel to the fire that the latter had made friends with the Russian bear. There was a playful Belgian griffon, a big French poodle, and a bulldog, too. The latter seemed drowsy, which deceived the dachshund. But it was watching with one eye and never released what it had caught hold of. The dachshund made mistake after mistake and it could not kill the Belgian griffon. The elegant poodle proved to be a skilful fighter and the bulldog did not yield ground, either. In top of all, Russia came as a roadroller and the Russian bear threatened the bulldog, too. The dachshund sought new friends and found the Italian greyhound but it did not care for it and found war inadmissible luxury. Finally, Italy still took up arms but no one knew who they were directed against. Only the Turkish dog proved friendly as it wanted to get its share of the booty. The Greek member of the Happy European Family is about to cut a slice off Turkey, illustrating that the peoples of the Balkans do not give up their ambitions. The Spanish find the bullfight too long but still hope to get some fleshy bones. The author writes as an explanation that "Peace is a present thrown to the dogs as long as the dachshund - whose heart is bleeding for Belgium and whose nose is bleeding because of Great Britain - does not get a proper muzzle."

119. Europäische Triebjagd. Berlin, Kunstverlag "Junos", 1914
The satirical map entitled Coursing in Europe presents the events from the point of view of the Central Powers. Its author and date of publication is not indicated. It compares the possibility of the conclusion of the war soon to an autumn coursing as an optimistic parallel to the slogan "by the time the leaves fall, every soldier will be back home." The Belgian hare has already been caught and optimism is further enhanced by the flight of the animals. They cannot shoot back after all.

120. Europa - capete incoronate. Bucuresti, 1914
A satirical map mocking the sovereigns of Europe. The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy is presented as a sick man, whereas Tsar Nicholas II is walking fast towards Europe, whip in hand. Several participants of the skirmish seem to await his help.

121. Europa simpati-politice. Bucuresti, 1914
A map mocking the leading politicians of Europe, made by a Rumanian artist.

122. Gessner, Anton: Das neue Europa. Wien, 1921
The Versailles peace treaties closing the First World War brought fundamental changes as regards the frontiers in Central Europe. A special feature and a tragedy for the central part of the continent is the fact that ethnic and political borders hardly ever coincide. The peace treaties and the readjustment of frontiers further increased the already existing controversies, giving rise to another conflagration.

123. Barometer

124. Freissler, Max: Carte des communications d'Europe. Verkehrskarte von Europa. Wien, 1931
The impetus of tourism that had been flourishing before the war naturally broke afterwards. Frontiers became more numerous and the financial means for travelling became less and less abundant due to the economic crisis. The organizations feeling responsible for tourism in Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Poland set up an association in 1925, called Association entre les Grandes Organisations Nationales de Voyages et Tourisme (A.G.O.T.). Sixteen member organizations coordinated the work of 873 travel agencies. This map here offers information about these tourist offices, the possibility of travelling by road, by railway, and even by air. Air transport was gaining an ever greater impetus after the war. The Idegenforgalmi és Utazási Vállalat (Company for Tourism and Travelling) was established in Hungary already before the First World War. From 1927 on the Hungarian IBUSZ and several foreign travel agencies worked in Hungary.

125. Képeslapok az 1930-as évekből.

126. Anderle Ferenc: Az európai rádióleadóállomások. Wien, 1926
It was on February 25, 1893 that telediffusion, the ingenious invention of the Hungarian Tivadar Puskás, broadcast news and music for the first time in Hungary and in Europe. In Hungary, regular broadcasting on the radio began on December 1, 1925. Kozma Miklós, Director of the Hungarian News Agency announced the beginning of broadcasting on Radio Hungary as follows: "The arsenal of Hungarian culture has been enriched by a very powerful weapon. Everyone knows what it means for Hungary, given the conditions today, that Hungarian speech can be sent across all frontiers. Broadcasting is meant not only for taking culture to the cottages of the countryside. It is the only possibility for keeping up contact with our kinsmen torn from us... I hereby pledge myself to use this weapon purely in the interest of the Hungarian culture, without regard to the business interests."
On the margins of this map there are contemporary advertisments concerning broadcasting.

127. Magyar hanglemezek az 1930-as évekből.

128. Blondel La Rougery, Édouard: Europe décembre 1939. Paris, 1940
This French map of the continent presents conditions as per December, 1939. A lot of new maps were issued following the several subsequent readjustments of the frontiers. This is one of them.
129. Upper Hungary Medal, 1938 ; Transylvania Medal, 1940 ; Southern Hungary Medal, 1941.

130. Soviet 'Capture of Vienna' Medal, 1945 ; Soviet 'Capture of Budapest' Medal, 1945 ; Soviet 'Capture of Berlin' Medal, 1945 1945.

131. Soviet 'Liberation of Prague' Medal, 1945 ; Soviet 'Liberation of Warsaw' Medal, 1945 ; Soviet 'Liberation of Belgrade' Medal, 1945

132. British France and Germany Star 1944-1945 ; British Italy Star 1943-1945 ; British Air Crew Europe Star 1939-1945

133. Irmédi-Molnár László-Jäger Károly: Európa. Budapest, 1948
The Treaty of Paris closing the Second World War involved another readjustment of the frontiers. The public needed detailed maps with the new frontiers to be able to follow the changes. This is one of them.

134. Compasses

135. Mean air temperature, January. In: Climatic atlas of Europe. Budapest, Cartographia, 1970
This is a page from the European atlas of climatography with mean temperatures in January. It is interesting to observe that mean temperatures do not decrease at a regular pace, proportionately with the growing distance from the Equator. This fenomenon is due to the Gulf Stream that makes winter at certain places on the continent much milder than elsewhere on similar latitudes.

136. Mean air temperature, July. In: Climatic atlas of Europe. Budapest, Cartographia, 1970
Another page of the same atlas shows mean temperatures in July. It reveals that the impact of the Gulf Stream is much less obvious in summer than in winter. Mean temperatures are much more proportionate with the changing latitudes in summer.

137. Tabula regionum Europae. Budapest, Cartographia, 1990
The countries of Europe in the last decade of the 20th century when everything seemed unchanged and unchangeable.

138. Barometer for Surveyors.

139. Tabula regionum Europae. Budapest, Cartographia, 1995
In 1995 Central Europe was no longer what is used to be. Rearrangement took place either peacefully or in the wake of wars.

140. Az Európai Unió. Budapest, 2004.
Europe today.

141. GPS eszközök, amelyek a helymeghatározást, a felmérést, valamint a navigációt könnyítik meg.
GPS instruments