Antonia Brito Rodrigues
Escola Municipal Gonzaga da Gama Filho-Prefecture of the City of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The aims of this paper is to present a cartographic practice to indicate the knowledge level of the population about sliding hazards in slum slopes.
The methodology consists of a collecting environmental information using a graphic questionnaire (spatial counter) in order to represent environmental aspects of terrain spill from each residence and the community's inhabitants' opinion about slidind hazards. A collection is made by students at the age of 11 and 15 years.
The dimension of the risk is indicated with colour hierarchy, making “sentimental mapping" and constructing the community risk map. Each residence is a risk point in the community. Several points with the same hierarchy represent a risk zone.
This practice was tested in the "Parque dos Mineiros"- Tuiuti Community –Rio de Janeiro and was important to demonstrate the ignorance inhabitant's referent to environmental aspects A confrontation of the community map with a inhabitant's sensation and the geotechnics risk map elaborated by the technicians of the city hall of Rio de Janeiro notices the estrangement of the technical knowledge and the popular knowledge and the need of decoding these instrument technicians' scientific knowledge for the common sense.
The community risk map has an important hole, because besides reading, describing and understanding the space reveals the people's sensation in relation to a environmental problem that puts in risk the life of thousands of people. The cartographic language as a didactic resource makes the process of knowledge acquisition quicker and more agreeable.
This practice works as a participativ local diagnosis in the sense of subsidising, proposing and to selecting a group of actions in environmental education seeking the understanding in the best way of slum slopes and the preservation of the collective space.

V. Filippakopoulou, B. Nakos, E. Michaelidou.
Cartography Laboratory, Department of Rural and Surveying Engineering
National Technical University of Athens, Greece.

According to the school curriculum children are using maps and atlases as tools of learning the content of geographic courses. Aim of teaching geography is the knowledge and understanding of spatial relationships. Children are using maps presenting their local environment (large scale maps), their country or the surrounding countries (medium or small scale maps), as well as world maps (very small scale maps). Do children understand the decreasing map scales? Can children recognize the differences of spatial representations in various scale maps? Behind these two questions the process of cartographic generalization is hidden. Generalization is the process that affects more than any other cartographic technique the information that is contained within a map. Generalization affects both location and meaning of information. Because, by reducing the map scale two crucial cartographic problems are arising. The first one refers to the reduction of the available space for presenting a specific area and the second one to the need of enlarging the physical dimensions of spatial objects in order to be clearly visible.
The aim of the present study is to clarify the children's conception of generalization functionality. Spatial transformations such as simplification, aggregation, amalgamation, merging, collapse, displacement, etc., which control the graphic modification caused by generalization, were tested. For the purpose of the study sample maps depicting feature changes due to scale reduction were composed, by applying the above mentioned generalization transformations. A questionnaire was given to 9-12 year-old primary school children. The answers record children's response to the generalization transformations. The results are helpful for teaching purposes and for designing more effective maps for children. The same results are critical for building a robust environment on the topic of the didactic of both geography and cartography.

Prof. Dra. Elza Yasuko Passini
State University of Maringá, Brazil.

The study of this learning method was based on the [Ferreiro-Macedo] interpretation of writing construction of children, using Piaget's theory.
On the other hand, we have Bertin's Semiology theory (1988) He said that data can be graphically represented in many forms. We need to find the best image that can show information in one moment of perception. To get it the child must change lines, bars, numbers, colors, etc. N times until he has the best representation. This way he builds skills and possibilities to understand the essence of the information. The child looks at and sees the relation between the elements of representation. Then he goes to the second stage, making syntheses - other views of charts. After that he can perceive the geography that is present in the data.
It's important that that teachers provide real-life situations for children to observe, taking elements of concrete space and make the real space of their life, take elements of the concrete space and make graphs. This language is important to world citizens because:
a) It's universal
b) it develops logical thinking through creation of graphs
c) it has tools to look for and present results of research from child's environment
d) the language of graphs will display the essence of information that will be important for communications in the next millenium.
I have experience with classes of 11 + year olds. The first time I showed them the climate graphs. They said: it's beautiful; it's colorful; there are some numbers, squares, and letters. Then I thought that they needed to make graphs about their lives to understand this language. So they made graphs about their ages. It sounds strange, but they understood the meanings of the lines and bars. It was a way to understand age graphs of populations in Brazil and the world.

José Jesús Reyes Nuńez
Department of Cartography, "Eötvös Loránd" University. Budapest, Hungary

In this paper I sum up the works related to the termination of the homepage to present cartographic concepts taught for children in Hungarian Elemental Schools. The principal topics to be read are:
- Changes in the original structure to present themes: saving difficulties during the explanation of concepts.
- Applying and adapting results of international researches in the design of the Homepage: how do children like to use the Web?
- Interactivity on the Web: asking and getting answers about map concepts. Use of the “Hot Potatoes" software. Some examples of own pages designed with this program.
- How to be continued?

Kira B.Shingareva, Bianna V.Krasnopevtseva
Moscow State University for Geodesy and Cartography. Moscow, Russia

Our first experience in this field was connected with compiling a series of planetary maps for special children edition “Man and Universe". There were small- scaled maps of Venus, Mars and the Moon with shaded relief. It was at the beginning of the nineties. Some years later we began to create a conception of extraterrestrial geography. Planetary maps and globes should play very important role in it. The main idea was that it is necessary to prepare the mankind in the whole to space explorations in future, to manned mission to Mars, to permanent base on the Moon and to make a right decisions in this field. That is why it is a good time to begin with such education in kindergarten and at school. On the threshold of the new Millenium the educated people must hear about chaoces on Mars, tesseras on Venus, catenas on the Moon. Special program on extraterrestrial geography is created and we began to work on it. This program includes parallel to pupils testing, special materials for teachers, writing text-books on extraterrestrial geography for 8-9 grades, on comparative planetology and planetary cartography for 10-11 grades (as profile subjects) also compiling various help material for exercises, viz. contour and thematic planetary maps, globes etc. Today it is possible to tell children about atmosphere and climate on the planets, about relief and morphology of their surface, about inner structure using thematic maps and topographic plans and diagrams.

István Lénárt
Lénárt BT. Budapest, Hungary.

Computers revolutionarized education in general, and geography teaching in particular. However, the last decades have proven that the computer alone is insufficient to provide space perception and basic concepts that are needed to grasp and handle further information. One of the possible hands-on materials, a new educational kit has been worked out in Hungary, and developed in the United States. The Lénárt Sphere consists of the equivalents of the planar construction tools that are generally used in geometry and geography. A transparent plastic sphere, about the size of a soccer ball; a ring or torus under the sphere to support it; hemispherical transparencies, 'spherical draft papers' that can be fit over the sphere, or being cut out into various forms with the scissors; spherical compass and center locator; spherical protractor; and various map projections on paper that can be cut out and fit into the inside of the hemispherical transparencies; then two transparencies are joined to form a completed globe. On the outer surface of this globe you can safely draw or construct with the construction tools. If you wipe off your markings, the network or globe in the inside will remain untouched. There are several possibilities of connecting geographic applications of the set with other subjects, such as geometry, physics, biology and so on, both with or without computer software materials.This device has been used in several schools in Hungary and the United States, and is making its way in a number of other countries as well.

Patrick Wiegand
School of Education, University of Leeds. United Kingdom.

The cartographic resources available on the internet are growing rapidly. Some offer powerful interactive multimedia tools which bring complementary modalities under user control and offer the opportunity to enhance users' understanding of spatial relationships. Others are no better, and some much worse, than conventional hard copy maps. Particular considerations apply to children's use of maps on the internet. These include issues of accessibility, relevance, age appropriateness and support for learning.
This paper reviews a selection of web-based cartographic materials, including those that make use of virtual reality technology and attempts to identify features that are likely to enhance learning and those that are more likely to inhibit it. Some strategic teaching principles are discussed as well as aspects of curriculum progression.

Tania Targino
Geography-History Project. Rio de Janeiro City Education Secretariat, Brazil

The lack of cartographic material appropriate for students 8 to 14 year old about the city of Rio de Janeiro was the starting point for the first Geographic Atlas of the City.
The Rio de Janeiro City Atlas is a collection of 36 A3 format maps, accompanied by a book suggesting some activities. Each page of the Atlas has a text which explains it, and suggests actitivities with different degrees of understanding and difficulty, and can thus be used by students who are 8 and older.
Our intention was creating some cartographic material about the city which could be easily read and interpreted, as a response to the teachers´ needs. We also wanted to provide the students with a certain amount of cartographic and geographic data about the city. With these maps, we intend to contribute for a better knowledge and study of the city.
The proposal to study the local as a point of departure for understanding the whole, the local study in order to reach a global study, is justifiable, for we understand that “the space globalizes itself, but it is not world-encompassing as a whole, only as a metaphor. All places belong to the world, but there is no such thing like a world space. Those who really become globalized are people and places."
In this way, the Atlas for students who are 8 and older is justifiable, and its role as an information means intensifies itself more and more.

Temenoujka Bandrova
Department of Photogrammetry and Cartography, University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy. Sofia, Bulgaria.
Valentina Nikolova
Department of Landscapes and Environmental Protection, University "St. Kliment Ohridski". Sofia, Bulgaria.

The cartographic method for studying the reality is one of the main and traditional methods of the geographical researches. The education maps and atlases have to be conformed with the children view on the world and to be attractive, easy readable and present objective the mapped objects and phenomena.
This article considers some questions related with using the maps and atlases by Bulgarian students in geographical education. The researches which were done are about the knowledge of the students in main cartographic questions about scale, projection, locality, legend, described objects and phenomena on the maps and about extraction the necessary information. The questionnary method is used for defining the knowledge of the students in different ages and from different settlements in Bulgaria. The priorities and defects of the maps and atlases used for education are pointed on the base of the students notions about the presented information and established difficulties at using the maps. The results from the research and marked conclusions leads to some recommendations about designing of maps and atlases for the appropriate age group. The needful explanations are presented by photos and text.
The analysis and synthesis of the inquiry answers can be use also by the teachers in the process of education in forming and perfecting the students skills for using the geographical maps and atlases.

(An ideal tool for teaching and learning to analyze statistical material and 3D visualization)
Hans-Uli Feldmann
President of the Swiss Society of Cartography, Chief editor of Cartographica Helvetica.
Swiss Federal Office of Topography. Wabern, Switzerland.

The Atlas of Switzerland – interactive is a joint project between the Institute of Cartography (ETH Zurich), the Swiss Federal Statistical Office and the Swiss Federal Office of Topography and aims to establish an international benchmark for digital national atlases.
The Atlas consists of carefully designed maps and 3D displays with a custom-made interface and supported by many functions which make it possible to collect and compare data in a spatial context. Data can be called up and simple analyses made for both the statistcal maps and 3D topography. As an integrated teaching tool, it is ideal for all conventional forms of teaching and learning, offering particular support for project-related and individual work, for instance as an interdisciplinary research tool.
Its contents covers more than 250 topics dealing with Switzerland and Europe in different map scales. Statistical data sets of several years or periods provide insights at cantonal, regional and communal level into the country's social and economic structure. The thematic maps are built up from a base map with different levels (relief, lakes and rivers, boundaries, transport network and settlements). The base map is overlaid with the chosen map topic which is calculated directly from the original statistical data.
The digital terrain model of Switzerland DTM25 is used for the 3D displays. The chosen view is calculated from the original data, shaded and colored according to altitude level (hypsography). The 3D topography can be viewed in three different ways: in the map relief mode, with the point of observation located vertically above the terrain, as a block diagram extracted from the terrain model and shown in perspective or as a panorama. The light source position can be changed to suit the chosen extract by moving the sun symbol on a stylized hemisphere.

(A learning tool for map reading: the SWISS MAP TROPHY - the perfect combination of theory and fun)
Hans-Uli Feldmann
President of the Swiss Society of Cartography, Chief editor of Cartographica Helvetica.
Swiss Federal Office of Topography. Wabern, Switzerland.

The professionally created multimedia program is based on the Swiss National Map series 1:25'000 and on the Road Map 1:200'000. The comparison of representative map sections with aerial photographs is an integral part of the program. Whoever needs to first build up the basics of how to use maps is given the opportunity to work through several chapters of principal map theory. This theoretic part includes topics like "distances in different map scales", "landscapes in a ground plan view" "contour lines and three-dimensional terrain", "individual symbols and signs", "coordinate grid", "trigonometric points and spot heights", "generalization" and "revision of maps".
Advanced users have the option of starting directly with one of the two Swiss Map Trophy games: The biking and hiking trip (based on the most detailed map 1:25'000) or the automobile trip (based on the Road Map 1:200'000). At any point of the game it is possible to access the theoretic part or especially the symbol library. This library contains all symbols and signs that appear in the different Swiss National Maps (1:25'000 - 1:200'000) and explains and illustrates them with photographs. Also very attractive are the mountain panoramas which can be viewed with a special Virtual Reality Program. Learning how to read maps has never been so easy and enjoyable!
The CD-ROM «Swiss Map Trophy» received an award in 1996 as the best multimedia product of Switzerland. It is available at the Swiss Federal Office of Topography, CH-3084 Wabern, and at most bookstores, stationers and CD-ROM shops throughout Switzerland. The package includes not only the CD-ROM, but also a special National Map 1:25'000 and a section of the Road Map 1:200'000 for the games, a leaflet containing all symbols for the National Map series of Switzerland 1:25'000, 1:50'000 and 1:100'000 as well as the new "rapex ruler", a tool for measuring coordinates, angles and inclinations to determine the exact position. Unfortunately, the Swiss Map Trophy is available only in German. A version in English or French is not yet planned.

Miriam Hermi Zaar
Véra Beatriz Köhler
Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Maringa/PR/, Brazil.

This work analyzes the different variables that compose the landscape of the municipality of Santa Helena and looks at the construction of thematic maps about it. The principle objective is to enable elementary school teachers to work with children who through their perceptions and life experiences in their own locality can contribute to the process of mapping the municipalty. The project was developed in 1999 by request of the teachers themselves and the mayor in order to know their city better and to have maps that would be instrumental in teaching/learning about municipal and regional space.
After the administrative formalities, school surveys and the preparedness of the instructors was determined, the thematic maps were constructed: hydrographic, hypsometric, land use, clinographic and vegetation , in addition to maquette synthesis.
Santa Helena City Hall acquired the material to be used and in the first phase the teachers spent time doing field work besides making thematic maps and maquettes, and in this way had an opportunity to participate in discussions about the methodology itself.
Municipal maps on a scale of 1:20000, topographical maps from the Ministry of the Army on a scale of 1:50000 and Landsat TM-5 satellite images were used to elaborate the thematic maps and maquettes. The topographical maps were indispensable in the elaboration of the hydrographic, hypsometric and clinographic maps. The satellite images helped to identify and update the different kinds of land use: urban areas, roads, waterways, artificial lakes, vegetation, agricultural areas, among others.
The realization of field work, maquettes and methodological discussions occurred concomitantly with the construction of the thematic maps, giving the teachers the instrumentation to develop work similar to their students, applying the techniques and methods shown and discussed in the project. The principal aim is to get children to observe the space in which they live and analyze the existent correlations among the components of the landscape, recognising them as parts of a whole.

Bettina Balassa.
Department of Cartography, "Eötvös Loránd" University. Budapest, Hungary

In Hungary there is no experience in creating tourist maps for children because there haven't been made any. The teaching of map reading is done by local tourist clubs and associations. In the absence of special maps they use orienteering maps for this purpose. The cause of the selection is that hungarian tourist maps' scale are small, they are inaccurate and a little bit difficult to orientating whit them. An orienteering map is more abstract (special key of signs) and don't contain tourist objects, pathways and text. In spite of these deficiency they are more suitable for orientating because of their scale and the more accurate representation of the terrian. By the combine of these two type of maps –using the advantages- we shell try to make a proper map for children.
- The first attempts were done by the beginning of the XIX century. Since then considerable development characterize this term.
- Mecsek is a “island mountain" in the south-west part of Hungary composed of limestone and sandstone. In the south side lies Pécs, which town played role in becoming touristplace in the early times.
- The age characteristics and easy using were primary considerations in choosing of representation methods, forming of the front and the back side, and the determination of the information content during construction.
- Children who know the area answer a question form about the completed map. Collecting the reflections by hungarian professionals.

Zsuzsa Turcsán
Cartographia Ltd.
Budapest, Hungary.

When a school atlas is planned the symbols and colours used in the atlas should be reflected in the legend. It is a something to be worked out very carefully. School atlases are usually exists in series for different ages. Therefore the aspects of planning an atlas demands a complex way of thinking over the whole verticality of products. This is a common work for the geographer and the cartographer also taking consideration the age categories, skills, tradition, methods. This survey offers a quick view through this systematical co-operation between the teacher as the user and the cartographer as the constructor.

Zsuzsa Turcsán
Cartographia Ltd.
Budapest, Hungary.

Analysing the past 20 years in geography teaching the total number of the compulsory lessons has been reduced at least to its 1/3 part meanwhile geography as a subject would have required enlargement. The subject-matter became condensed, focused on principles. It automatically affected thematics in two main ways. The special cartography lessons should undertake both teaching the children to certain technics and methods for using maps in general, also forcing teachers using atlases and maps as stand-byes while teaching descriptive geography. Reduction of the number of lessons concerned the secondary schools tragically. Some types miss geography absolutely so students aged 14 - 18 are far from being familiar with cartography or its printed forms.

Ana Francisca de Azevedo
Instituto de Estudos da Criança
Universidade do Minho
Braga, Portugal

Working with portuguese children from six to ten years old in a school context showed that the developping of tradicional curricular geographical knowledge and practices scarsly increase their own capacities of representing the world around them. Even though children deal with many sorts of cartographic material from the early childhood they does not seem to achieve a high level of mapping competences during the primary school where the spatial skills utilised when encoding and decoding spatial information about environment are mobilized in fragmented tasks. Exploring the centrality of the map as both a material object and as metaphor growing up within our culture, this paper sums up the results of the implementation of a set of projects organised on a diversity of available resources and pedagogical activities considering young readers ability and sense of place and taking into acount the vast range of representations they should be able to produce. The childrens perception of familiar space in different scales was the point of departure of each experience and several strategies for exploring and depicting the milieu were developed with them and teachers in classes. Research findings support the argument that the ability to apply spatial perceptual skills is dependent on the level of spatial conceptual understanding. Among other important goals the main objective of this study was to investigate how formal education can contribute to rethink the idea of mapping that behinds the changing technics of seeing and reproducing graphic images in a world of radically unstable spaces and structures where the instrumental use of cartographicąs in daily life seems to obscure the epistemological and interpretative challenges that mapping presents.

Jacqueline M. Anderson, Janine Le Sann, Jean Carričre
Concordia University, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UQAM
Canada, Brasil

We are living in a period which is experiencing rapid technological change. In many countries there is also a revolution taking place in elementary and secondary education -- with a movement towards competency-based instruction. Teachers want age appropriate materials that can be used within the schools and accessed by students on their own. One such example is an electronic atlas for children (which provides a range of materials such as maps, text, sound and data) and this paper examines two important questions concerned with its use. First, "In society, how wide spread is access to the use of the new technology for education in the schools?" Secondly, "How does the new technology change the teaching of basic concepts associated with Social Sciences (History, Geography and Citizenship Education) and the introduction and use of graphics such as maps? The second question is explored through the considering a pilot research project.

Jacqueline M. Anderson, Janine Le Sann, Jean Carričre
Concordia University, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UQAM
Canada, Brasil

This workshop presents aspects of the first pilot project undertaken in connection with developing materials for an electronic atlas for children. A videotape of Quebec children in the first year of Cycle 2 (8 to 9 years of age) working with different materials (model, air photograph, topographic map, and computer fly-over) is presented. The pilot materials were developed to test the students' ability to work with, and comprehend, elements of the physical landscape (for example, valley, hill, river and lake etc.) of their region. A retrospective examination of the pilot materials and what can be learnt is also presented.

Henry W. Castner
Pittsboro, NC

The Guyou Projection and those on the icosahedron, made on 32 squares and 20 equilateral triangles respectively, can be rearranged to form a great variety of maps of the world. In a sense this is true for all map projections given their various aspects: equatorial, polar and oblique. But this is not an obvious point made in most text books. Manipulative projections allow young students a way to create their own projections of the earth and thus demonstrate this point. Along the way, these manipulations test their knowledge of the geographical relationships between continents and oceans and provide opportunities to consider how the map projection can be used in solving various geographic problems. In addition, general questions about the nature of map projections are raised. In this hands-on workshop, a number of geographic propositions are stated for participants to address with sets of these projections.

Shimshon Livni , Varda Bar
The Hebrew University
Jerusalem, Israel

A new unit for teaching physical map skills to Grade 4 (aged 9-10) students in Israeli elementary schools was developed. The classroom aims and activities were suggested by the results of previous research (Livni and Bar, 1998). An evaluation was made of the effectiveness of the Unit for enhancing (a) the cognitive abilities required by pupils learning the necessary skills and (b) the knowledge of map skills possessed by pupils.
The new Unit was tested using two Grade 4 classes, one class was employed as a Trial Group and the other as a Control Group. The pupils' possession of the required starting abilities was evaluated both before and after learning the Unit. The subject's knowledge of map skills was examined only after learning had taken place, because it was assumed that this was zero or close to zero beforehand.
The Trial Group was instructed according to the new Unit, while the Control Group was taught by conventional methods.
The main conclusions of the controlled experiment were as follows:
1. Before teaching, there were no significant differences between the starting abilities expressed by the Trial and Control Groups.
2. After learning the new Unit, almost all of the Trial Group students had achieved mastery level in the use of the vertical viewpoint, which is required to see the physical map as an orthogonal projection of the 3-D environment. Only a minority of the Control Group students had achieved this mastery.
3. Even after instruction some of the Trial Group pupils continued to have difficulty in expressing symbolically their inner represented spatial concepts. Control Group pupils failed completely this task.
4. Regarding the knowledge of map skills, the Trial Group students showed high mastery in decoding topographic heights and interpreting 3-D landform from physical map.

In a previous paper (Livni and Bar, 1998: 50-51) it was suggested that low achievement of Grade 4 students in learning map skills may result from the following factors:
1. Pupil's lack the cognitive starting abilities needed for learning the relevant cartographic content.
2. Teaching materials and instruction methods are of low quality.
3. Teachers lack sufficient knowledge of the relevant cartographic concepts.
4. Teachers do not use suitable teaching methods.
The findings of the reported Controlled Experiment prove that the use of a Unit for teaching map skills which is based on a scientific rationale, leads to enhanced achievements.
It is therefore recommended that a Training Course Unit should be developed on the theoretical framework and results of the present research. This would be aimed at pre-service and in-service teachers in elementary schools.
Livni, S. and Bar, V. (1998) Starting Abilities Required to Learn Map skills Related to Physical Maps. International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, 7(1), 50-66.