1.2. Activities of Hungarian Military Mapping between 1990-1995

In the period 1990-95 the organization of the Hungarian military mapping underwent significant changes in line with those in politics and the transformation of the defence policy of the country. At present the Hungarian Defence Mapping Directorate is performing its duties directly subordinated to the Defence General Staff. Of its two institutions the Tóth Ágoston Hungarian Defence Mapping Institute (MH TÁTI) is primarily responsible for military mapping and connected research in army cartography, surveying and photogrammetry in order to satisfy the demands of national defence. The other military mapping institution is the Hungarian Defence Cartographic Centre (MH KARTÜ), separated from MH TÁTI on 1 January 1994, that prepares military topographic maps, publishes maps not only for defence use and carries out R+D activities connected with its programme of preparing various digital cartographic products.

Besides outright defence cartography one of the main activities of Hungarian military mapping is the updating and publication of the topographic series of the country in scales between 1:25,000 - 1:200,000. These so called ordnance topographic series are prepared in Gauss-Krüger conformal cylindrical projection, with international sheet lines. Updating works, that have started in 1985, were completed in 1992 in all scales. With the termination of the Warsaw Pact military topographic maps, formerly treated as secret, have become available for the public, and are sold openly since 1993.

The Hungarian Defence Cartographic Centre also produces and publishes tourist maps using the updated 1:50,000 topographic series, with the effective participation of the Hungarian Touristic Association. By 1995 tourist maps of the Kőszeg Mountains, Őrség, Gödöllő Hills, Cserehát, Kemeneshát, the Zala Hills, a road map of Hungary in scale 1:550,000, and a general map of Hungary in scale 1:500,000 were published.

The Centre has also published various city maps, among others, the first map of Budapest on (homogeneously correct) scale 1:30.000. Traditional products of MH KARTÜ include plastic relief maps; that of Budapest at scale 1:50,000 and of the Carpathian Basin at scale 1:1,250,000 are the most notable ones. A relief map of Hungary at scale 1:200,000 in 35 parts and in small copy number has also been completed.

Following long preparatory works the first colour town map based on digital ortophoto has also been prepared in international co-operation (map of Kiskunfélegyháza). Further such photomaps are planned for publication.
An 8-piece folio of facsimile maps has also been published for map collectors. More are planned to follow.

Military cartography has been busy since the early '80s with research on digital cartographic processes and connected developments. Most notable results of MH TÁTI and MH KARTÜ in this field are those below:

Creation of the standards for the digital topographic map is considered as the most important result of all research efforts.

A condition for creating digital maps and databases, is the definition of their requirements and parameters, and by facilitating their efficient use. In view of this logic the standard "Requirements of Military Digital Topographic Maps (MDTM)" was prepared in 1994. Considering that this standard is the first of its kind in Hungary, it will have prime importance for the preparation of such documents later on.

The standard covers the folowing subjects:

As supplement to the standard the following are included:

Experts of military mapping have put considerable efforts into the study of problems of professional history, the recording of topographic surveys, aerial photography and scientific activities in general. Some 15 articles in general have dealt with the history of the Institute, its different fields of activities and its products. This aim was also served by the published volumes: History of the Hungarian Military Mapping I-II., The Tóth Ágoston Mapping Institute of the Hungarian Army Between 1919-1994. The publication of 'Bibliography of Military Mapping', listing the titles of works published in the subject during the past 75 years should also be mentioned in this context.

The collection of objects of professional history also dates back several decades. Relics of the Institute's 75 years of work are displayed in a small museum. During the past few years the collection, first displayed in 1981, was enlarged by memorial rooms for topography, aerial photogrammetric mapping, and a set of memorial objects dating back to the years 1919-1945 was also added. The museum is mainly visited by students of surveying and mapping, as well as by interested groups of different professional societies.

Hungarian Defence and especially its Mapping Service Directorate place high priority on both standard and postgraduate training of cartographic professionals. The Surveying Section of the Kossuth Lajos Military Academy was set up in 1991 enabling the training of artillery-surveying students. This means that the Army Mapping Service will have a safe supply of specialists trained in both military and mapping disciplines. The Artillery Department of the Academy has 40 first-grade students, while 12, 19 and 11 undergraduates in its 2nd, 3rd and 4th grades respectively.
In order to improve the cartographic and geographic knowledge of Hungarian army officers the Department of Mapping and Military Geography was established in 1995 at the Zrínyi Miklós Military Academy.

Within the frame of scientific training the MH TÁTI is a designated place of research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. During the past few years two persons obtained their academic doctor's degree, and three others achieved or are about to achieve their PhD's.

The Mapping Service Directorate and its subordinate organs place great emphasis on maintaining and increasing both its domestic and foreign professional contacts. Relations are intensive with institutions of the Ministry of Agriculture (Institute of Geodesy, Cartography and Remote Sensing (FÖMI), Satellite Geodetic Observatory), with cartographic chairs of Budapest universities, and with other institutions of R+D.
Foreign contacts are also given high priority. Besides the good relations with military services of neighbouring countries co-operation with the US Defence Mapping Agency, covering practically all aspects of cartography, should be mentioned.

László Buga
Hungarian Defence Cartographic Centre
(MH KARTÜ), Budapest

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